Decision fatigue describes how people struggle with their choices after making too many decisions in a given day.
Decision fatigue refers to the idea that your willpower or ability to make good choices deteriorates in quality after an extended period of decision making. Put simply: When you're forced to make hard decisions throughout the day, then it's easy to make bad choices near the end of the day.
Roy F. Baumeister, a social psychologist known for a wide range of work on the self, sexuality and sex differences, social rejection, motivation, and aggression, coined the term decision fatigue in reference to the decline in the quality of decisions that are made by a person after many decisions have been made in a row.
Real-life examples of decision fatigue have been described in studies:
Shai Danziger and Liora Avnaim-Pesso of Ben Gurion University and Johnathan Levav of Columbia University studied the various factors affecting the probability that Israeli prisoners who were going before a judge for a parole hearing would be set free.
After analyzing over 1,100 decisions over the course of a year, the researchers found that when it was time to decide if a prisoner should be granted parole, it wasn’t the crime committed, the length of the sentence, or the ethnicity of the offender that determined prisoner's future.
Instead, the biggest influence seemed to be the time of day the prisoner stood in front of the judge. The prisoners who appeared later in the day were less likely to be released on parole than those who appeared in the morning.
The judges were not treating prisoners unfairly on purpose. They were actually experiencing decision fatigue. The mental work required to rule on case after case all day wore each judge down, weakening his ability to make a good decision.
This resulted in quick decisions that would make it easier for the judge at that moment, which was to deny parole to the prisoners appearing before him. Rather than agonizing over decisions, the judges would typically ease their mental strain by resisting change and keeping the prisoners locked up.
How Decision Fatigue Impacts Your Life?
Decision fatigue explains why you may start to look for shortcuts in your decision making throughout the day. You may even decide to give up and do nothing when you are faced with a decision.
For example, you may respond to an email in an angry way rather than taking the time to formulate a thoughtful response. You could also end up driving through a fast food restaurant for dinner if you didn't take the time in the morning to plan out your meals. Or, it could be late at night when you make an impulsive purchase online that completely blows your budget.
This state of decision making routinely warps everyone's judgment. It does not discriminate between executives and non-executives, or the rich and the poor. While most people are unaware of it, decision fatigue can have a lot of lasting consequences.
How to Prevent Decision Fatigue?
#1. Make Your Most Important Decisions in the Morning
Your mind is the clearest during the morning hours because you’re not yet worn out from the day’s activities. You haven't been faced with a plethora of decisions yet, and you are able to stop and think about your situation.
Consider taking some time while you are going over your most important tasks (MIT’s) for the day to make any important decisions that are scheduled to come your way. In fact, I recommend that you create a morning routine that includes planning your day as a priority habit
#2. Choose Simple Options for Less Important Decisions
For the lower priority items on your to-do list that really have no impact in the long run, go for the simpler option. Which option makes you feel less overwhelmed? Which is the easiest thing to do right now?
Depending on how complex the issue is, big decisions often require more time and consideration regarding your long- and short-term goals. For decisions that are more immediate, taking the path of least resistance is probably the better choice.
One basic decision-making flaw is treating easy consumer decisions as if they were difficult and important in the long run. While you likely know that every brand of floss will get the job done, you may still stand in the store and contemplate the pros and cons of the different varieties. This is a waste of time, yet it is very common.
People tend to do this because any wasted deliberation in a store is a metacognitive mishap. The vast array of options confuses you into thinking that this decision is worth taking a significant amount of time to make. Rather than pondering these small decisions, just grab what you know works and carry on with your day.
#3. Plan Your Daily Decisions in Advance
Even better than waiting until the morning is to plan the most insignificant decisions the night before they will happen. In fact, you can turn this into a habit that's part of your routine before you go to bed.
For example, maybe you aren't sure what you are going to bring to work for lunch the next day. Take some time to consider your options so you don't end up reaching for a cheeseburger at 11:30 am.
#4. Don't Make Big Decisions When You're Hungry
We have all heard about the dangers of going grocery shopping while hungry, but research also suggests that we shouldn't make any important decisions on an empty stomach. When you are hungry, your stomach produces a hormone called ghrelin, which negatively impacts decision making.
This appetite-increasing hormone decreases impulse control and increases the chances of making a bad decision. By studying rats, researchers found that, similar to humans, rodents find it difficult to resist a quick temptation when they have increased levels of ghrelin.
#5. Limit and Simplify Your Choices
If you are faced with too many decisions (like what to eat, wear, or watch on TV) , narrow it down to three choices at a time. If you can't make a decision within the three choices that you have limited yourself to, choose another three options to consider.
So, say you’re going through the menu at a restaurant and you’re trying to decide what you want to eat. Narrow the menu down to three choices at a time until you are able to decide what's best for you. This will help to prevent you from becoming overwhelmed with all of the information in front of you.
#6. Go Minimalist
Minimalism is a lifestyle movement that aims to cut down on possessions so you only have the essential items. Life can be lived more fully when small and unnecessary decisions have to be made, so sticking to the essentials for these things leaves you more room to focus on more important decisions.
While a lot of people choose to apply minimalism to their wardrobes by only purchasing timeless and necessary items that can then be accessorized or dressed down, you can also go minimalist when decorating your house or considering the car you want to drive.
Minimalism requires you to determine the most important pursuits in your life, and taking away everything that is distracting you from that. By doing this, you can find a way to live your life that adds richness around life’s key elements.
#7. Aim for “Good enough” Instead of Perfection
If you are working on something that is not helping you achieve your final goal, leave well enough alone. If you keep thinking everything has to be perfect, your perfectionism will turn into procrastination. Complete something until it is good enough, and if it needs revising/fixing later, you can always go back and make the necessary changes.
#8. Remove Unnecessary Distractions
Set aside specific parts of the day to tend to any distractions such as social media and email. Give yourself a limited amount of time to engage in these activities, and get back to work as soon as that time is up.
When shopping, don’t enter a store unless you know specifically what you are there to purchase. Otherwise, you will present yourself with a lot of little decisions on whether or not you want to buy something on impulse. Don't allow these little distractions into your life.
Finally, be wary of the “shiny objects” in your life. Often, we are tempted to start a new project or build a habit, simply because it seems fun or interesting. But these temptations usually distract us from what's working in your life.
#9. Focus on What's Actually Important
While we all have some sense of fear of missing out, when it comes to finishing your most important tasks, you will have to turn down some things. If you put too much on your plate, it is likely to get in the way of accomplishing your main priorities.
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Final Thoughts on Decision Fatigue
In conclusion, decision fatigue may be one of the many underlying reasons why you have not been able to build good habits and daily routines in the past. Once you are aware of decision fatigue and understand how to overcome it, you’ll be able to take the necessary steps to stay consistent with your daily habits.